۱۳۹۰ آذر ۶, یکشنبه

We're at the end of the road of diplomacy with Iran

November 27, 2011

(Washington) – A leading U.S. senator in charge of efforts to target Iranian economy suggested the sanctions against the Islamic Republic’s Central Bank will be a major step to avoid of a military conflict.

Iran and the West are at odds over the Islamic state’s nuclear ambitions. The United States and its European allies have imposed additional sanctions on the clerical regime after the United Nations Security Council passed four rounds of sanctions on Iran.

“If we do not sanction the Central Bank of Iran, then we make conflict between Iran and Israel very likely,” Senator Mark Kirk (R-IL) said in an interview with the Voice of America’s Persian News Network when asked whether the West is reaching the end of the road of diplomacy with Iran.

Washington named Iran last week as an area of "primary money laundering concern," a move to deter non-American banks from dealing with the Iranian banks under section 311 of the “USA Patriot Act,” and also expanded sanctions to target companies that aid its oil and petrochemical industries as well as blacklisting more people involved in its nuclear work.

The Republican senator from Illinois said he is committed to diplomatic efforts as a senator, but warned that “if we not do the sanction, I would basically expect then military action, and then we would be working as a senator to support U.S. allies in the region.”

The West has long been insisting on a diplomatic solution to clear its concerns about Iran’s nuclear ambitions, but they, as well as Iran’s regional arch-foe Israel, have refused so far to rule out a military action on Iran's nuclear facilities.

Analysts believe a military strike on the world’s fifth biggest oil exporter causes further tensions in the Middle East and in the world’s energy market as Iran has warned that it will respond to any attacks by hitting Israel and U.S. interests in the Persian Gulf.

Director of research at The Washington Institute Patrick Clawson, in remarks broadcast at the same show explaining why Iran’s Central bank has not been designated as a target for the U.S. sanctions, said Washington concerns of not having full cooperation of the world at the current stage.

“We don’t want to target the Central Bank unless we get quite certain that we are going to have cooperation from countries like China,” Clawson, who directs the Iran Security Initiative, said adding that all that’s going on in the world of economy like the European debt crisis strengthened the U.S. concerns.

Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Liu Weimin said on Wednesday that Beijing opposes any unilateral sanctions against Iran and said “We believe pressure and sanctions will not fundamentally solve the Iranian issue, but will complicate the issue.”

“What in fact the U.S. is showing is that actually there is lots of ways that Unites States can turn up the pressure on Iran. And that remains true, there’s many more that U.S. could do,” Clawson said.

He further predicted that Iran will agree to resume negotiations with the world powers within a few months “as a confidence building measure.”

۱۳۹۰ آبان ۲۹, یکشنبه

"Germany needs to limit ties with Iran"

By Siamak Dehghanpour and Babak Gorji

Voice of America, PNN

Nov 20 (Washington) – The German vice-chairperson of a Delegation at the European Parliament which oversees relations with Iran, in an interview with the Persian service of the Voice of America refutes the idea of cutting Germany’s economic ties with Iran suggesting to limit the ties “only to necessities”.

The German Spiegel magazine said in a report based on the Germany’s statistical center that total amount of exports to Iran in the first eight months of the current year was more than 2 billion euro. Some western media accuse Germany of helping the Islamic republic to secure its economic stability.

Kurt Lechner, who along with two other prominent members if the Europen Delegation had attended Thursday in the Persian-language program of “Ofogh” (Horizon) of the Voice of America broadcasting into Iran, said: “The Germany’s economic ties with Iran should not be improved in any way.”

Responding to a question about any possible decision about limiting Germany’s economic ties with Iran, Lechner said “relations between the two countries should be limited only to necessities.”

He further said “all possible means, other than a military action, should be considered in order to see changes in behavior of Iran’s regime by increasing pressures on Tehran.”

According to Iran’s Custom Office, Germany was the fourth biggest exporter to Iran in the past seven months after United Arab Emirates, China and South Korea. Iran is under international economic sanctions because of disputes over its controversial nuclear program.

“Be sure that Germany would never be dependent to Iran’s gas or oil to meet its energy needs,” Lechner stressed.

MEPs urge Iran to adopt NPT Additional Protocol

Voice of America, PNN

By Siamak Dehghanpour and Babak Gorji

Nov 20 (Washington) – A delegation at the European Parliament which oversees the Iranian affairs, urged Tehran to implement what it calls the Additional Protocol, which permits unrestricted inspections on declared nuclear facilities to search for any possible covert atomic activity.

Relations between Iran and the U.N. nuclear watchdog have become strained in the past years with the Vienna-based agency voicing frustration over what it says is lack of cooperation between the Islamic state and the agency’s inspectors.

The latest report published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) further strained Iran's relations with the IAEA and the West so that Iran’s parliament announced it is debating over limiting cooperation with the agency or possible withdrawal from the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

“Iran should remain in the NPT. It has actually signed the Additional Protocol that gives more rights to inspect Iranian facilities and also gives Iran more guarantees about the accuracy of the IAEA’s gathered information,” Tarja Cronberg, the Finnish head of the Delegation for Relations with Iran at the European Parliament, said in an interview with the Voice of America’s Persian-language Horizon (Ofogh).

The last week’s report of the U.N. nuclear agency assessed that Iran has conducted researches and tests which could improve the Islamic state’s capability to develop nuclear weapons. The report further raised a clamor in Western capitals for harsher sanctions against the clerical regime.


The three prominent delegates warned the Islamic state of increasing international pressures if it refuses to meet its obligations though they stressed on the need of dialogue with Iran as the European Parliament’s parallel approach toward Iran.

“Under the current conditions, we should take the most benefits from every sanction even if they had not already been considered,” said the first vice-chairperson of the Delegation Kurt Lechner confirming his fellow delegation member Cronberg who said the EU supports sanctions but at the same time supports dialogue with Iran.

A senior member of the Delegation for Relations with Iran at the European Parliament Marietje Schaake from Netherlands said in the same TV program that: “we have to be careful not to push the (Iranian) population toward this regime by starting to isolate and even attack on Iran.”

“It is important that those in power in Iran stick to their words and start more cooperating with the international community, so that the worst possible option on the table can be avoided,” Schaake said in an apparent reference to a military option.

The West has long been insisting on a diplomatic solution to clear its concerns about Iran’s nuclear ambitions, but they, as well as Iran’s regional arch-foe Israel, have refused so far to rule out a military action on Iran's nuclear facilities.

“All possible means, other than a military action, should be considered,” said the German delegate Lechner expressing hope to see changes in behavior of Iran’s regime by increasing pressures on Tehran.

Analysts believe a military strike on the world’s fifth biggest oil exporter causes further tensions in the Middle East and in the world’s energy market as Iran has warned that it will respond to any attacks by hitting Israel and U.S. interests in the Persian Gulf.


The European delegation was scheduled to pay a visit to Iran this month to meet with Iranian officials as well as a group of Iranian activists and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) to discuss not only over the disputed nuclear work but also over the human rights situation in the Islamic state. The visit was cancelled after the group’s request for visa was denied by Iranian authorities.

“By denying our requests for visas, it became clear to me that our visit from Iran could be necessary and positive as the hardliners were opposing to such visit,” Lechner said adding that “our meetings with people and civil society in Iran could make Iranian government worried about drawing another negative image of Iran in Europe.”

In October, the U.N. special rapporteur on human rights in Iran Ahmed Shaheed said in a report about an increasing trend of alleged violations of the fundamental rights of the people and stressed the need for greater transparency from the Iranian authorities.

Asking whether the European delegation would plan for another visit to Iran if they ignore a part of their plan to meet with activists, Cronberg replied “It is important for the delegation to meet the parliament and also to meet the NGOs … so this plan is not changing.”

“There is no other plan to visit Iran in near future,” said Lechner adding that the earliest time could be late next year only if the conditions were met.

۱۳۹۰ آبان ۲۰, جمعه

شدیدترین تحریم های کنگره آمریکا بر یک کشور

سیامک دهقانپور و بابک گرجی
شبکه خبری فارسی صدای آمریکا

واشنگتن (۱۹ آبان) – آژانس بین المللی انرژی اتمی طی گزارشی در روز سه شنبه از ابعاد نظامی احتمالی برنامه ی هسته ای ایران ابراز نگرانی کرده است. صاحبنظران از دور جدید تحریم های کنگره ی آمریکا بر ایران بعنوان «شدیدترین» تحریم هایی که تا کنون بر علیه کشوری اعمال شده است یاد می کنند.
تنش قدیمی بین دو کشور پس از آنکه واشنگتن در ماه گذشته تهران را به طراحی ترور سفیر عربستان در آمریکا متهم کرد رو به فزونی نهاد و گزارش اخیر آژانس بین المللی انرژی اتمی، مبنی بر این که ایران تحقیقاتی را انجام داده که می تواند به طراحی سلاح هسته ای مربوط باشد، دامنۀ این تنش ها را گسترده تر کرده است.
دینا مارشال، مشاور ارشد پیشین کاخ سفید، کنگره و وزارت بازرگانی آمریکا طی مصاحبه ای در برنامۀ تحلیلی افق از شبکه ی خبری فارسی صدای آمریکا گفت: «لایحه ای که هفته ی گذشته به صورت شفاهی در کمیته ی امور خارجی مجلس نمایندگان به تصویب رسید قطعا شدیدترین تحریم هایی که تا کنون بر علیه کشوری اعمال شده است را بدنبال خواهد داشت."
طبق گزارش روز چهارشنبه ی آژانس بین المللی انرژی اتمی، ایران بر روی طراحی کلاهک هسته ای کار کرده و آزمایش هایی را نیز پیش از سال دو هزار و سه انجام داده است. طبق گزارش آژانس، ممکن است آن تحقیقات کماکان در ایران ادامه یافته باشد.
سناتور دموکرات جان کری، رئیس کمیته ی روابط خارجی سنای آمریکا، می گوید که «قصد دارم برای انجام اقداماتی لازم و ثمربخش، همکاری نزدیکی با کاخ سفید داشته باشم تا آنجا که ایران درخواست جامعه ی بین الملل را بپذیرد.»
ایلیانا راس لتینن، رئیس جمهوریخواه کمیته ی امور خارجی مجلس نمایندگان آمریکا، در واکنش به گزارش اخیر آژانس گفت: «کنگره می تواند از طریق تصویب دو لایحه ای که اخیرا با حمایت قاطع در کمیته ی امور خارجی به تصویب رسید، فشارها را بر ایران افزایش دهد.»
دینا مارشال معتقد است حامیان اعمال تحریم های سنگین تر بر ایران، هم در کنگره و هم در سنا، علاقمندند که هر چه سریع تر اقداماتشان پیش برود، اما در ادامه می گوید: «آنچه که توسط یک کمیته ی مهم مجلس به تصویب رسید، به آن معنا نیست که لایحه برای ابلاغ به رئیس جمهور به تصویب رسیده است. سنا هم باید اقدامات خودش را انجام دهد ... نسخه های متعددی از لوایح گوناگون به سنا ارائه شده است.»
او همچنین به این نکته اشاره می کند که همواره بر سر این که چه کسی در عرصه ی سیاست خارجی حرف اول را می زند تنشی تاریخی میان کنگره و دولت وجود داشته، و در مورد اینکه کاخ سفید بخواهد بطور دست بسته تمامی آن مصوبات را برای اجرا بپذیرد، ابراز بدبینی نمود.
اریک فراری، حقوقدان و متخصص قانون تحریم ها و امور مربوط به اداره ی بررسی سرمایه های خارجی در وزارت خزانه داری آمریکا، که در برنامۀ افق حضور داشت، ضمن تائید نظر آقای مارشال، نسبت به اتخاذ یک تصمیم سریع از جانب دولت برای اعمال تحریم ها ابراز تردید نمود و گفت: «این حرکت با مشکل مواجه خواهد شد.»
او از بندی که طبق آن صدور مجوز برای صادرات قطعات یدکی برای هواپیماهای آمریکایی مسافربری را ممنوع می کند و امنیت پروازی مردم عادی را به خطر می اندازد، بعنوان یکی از بخش هایی که ممکن است با مشکل مواجه شود یاد کرد و گفت: «بطور قطع حل و فصل چنین موضوعی امری ساده نخواهد بود.»
آقای فراری چنین ادامه داد که: «از یک طرف دولت آمریکا می خواهد صدور قطعات یدکی که ممکن است برای مقاصد نظامی مورد استفاده قرار بگیرند را ممنوع نماید اما از طرف دیگر نمی خواهد چنین تحریم هایی امنیت پرواز مردم ایران را به مخاطره اندازد.»
«در تصویب نهایی لوایح تحریم شاهد یک قانون بسیار متفاوت خواهیم بود.»
هر دو متخصص میهمان برنامه ی افق، بر این موضوع توافق داشتند که تحریم ها تا پایان سال به تصویب نخواهند رسید.
مسیر دیپلماسی
کترین اشتون، مسول سیاست خارجی اتحادیه ی اروپا، که شش قدرت بزرگ جهانی را در مذاکرات هسته ای با ایران نمایندگی می کند، در ماه گذشته خاطر نشان کرد که مذاکراتی مثل آنچه که در ماه ژانویه در استانبول ترکیه انجام گرفت و به هیچ نتیجه ای نرسید، نباید مجددا تکرار شوند.
بندی از لوایح پیشنهادی تحریم کنگره در صورت تصویب هر گونه تماس مقامات آمریکا با همتایان ایرانی خود در خاک آمریکا را ممنوع می کند.
دینا مارشال تمایل اندکی را در میان کشورهای غربی برای ادامه ی مذاکرات هسته ای با ایران می بیند و می گوید: «بسیاری بر این عقیده هستند که آن بحث و گفتگوها به هیچ نتیجه ی عملی منجر نشد.»
به گفته ی مارشال «دیپلماسی خوب است ... اما فکر می کنم بسیاری بر این باورند که آنچه نیاز داریم نتیجه است.»
بر خلاف مارشال، اریک فراری معتقد است که مسیر دیپلماسی هنوز به پایان خودش نرسیده و غرب به جای اعمال تحریم های سنگین تر، باید برای رسیدن به راه حلی دیپلماتیک بر سر مساله ی هسته ای ایران تلاش کند.
«من معتقدم راه رسیدن به نتیجه، از مسیر گفتگو می گذرد.»بانک مرکزی ایران، پنجمین تولید کننده ی بزرگ نفت در دنیا، و همینطور تعدادی از مقامات حکومتی مثل رهبر، رئیس جمهور، تعدادی دیگری از نمایندگان مجلس و اعضای سپاه پاسدارن علاوه بر آنهایی که قبلا در فهرست تحریم ها قرار گرفته بودند، طبق لوایح پیشنهادی جدید ممکن است مورد تحریم قرار بگیرند.

Experts see new U.S. sanctions on Iran toughest ever

By Siamak Dehghanpour and Babak Gorji
Voice of America, PNN

Washington (Nov 10) – The new round of U.S. sanctions against Iran would be the “toughest ever” against a country if the proposals move forward, experts said in an interview with the Voice of America’s Persian News Network, as the U.N. atomic watchdog expressed concerns over Iran’s nuclear ambitions.
Tension between the two arch-foes increased in October when Washington accused Tehran of organizing a plot for assassination of the Saudi ambassador to the United States and has heated up when the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported the Islamic state appeared to be conducting secret research that may relate to design a nuclear bomb.
“The legislation passed by voice vote in the foreign affairs committee of the U.S. house of representatives just last week is certainly the toughest sanction that have ever been placed on any country,” said Dana Marshall, a former senior advisor to the White House, congress and Department of Commerce in an interview with Horizon (Ofogh).
The IAEA’s Wednesday report said information indicates that Iran worked on the design of an atomic weapon, and tested the components of such a weapon as part of what the agency calls a "structured" program before 2003. Iran, the report says, might still be engaged in related research.
Head of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, John Kerry (D-MA), said "I intend to work closely with the Administration to take whatever additional necessary and productive steps to get Iran to meet the coalition’s demands."
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL), Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee also said in response to the IAEA’s latest report that: “The Congress can ratchet up that pressure by passing two new bills targeting Iran which were recently unanimously adopted by the House Foreign Affairs Committee.”
Marshall believes the sponsors of tougher sanctions on Iran at both the Congress and the House want to move very quickly and said: “what passed by one very important committee of the House, does not mean that is exactly the bill that would be submitted to the president. The Senate still has to act … several versions of bills submitted in the senate.”
He further pointed to a historical tension between the congress and the administration in terms of who speaks on foreign policy and raised his skepticism over the administration’s acceptance of all provisions currently under discussion with “tight hands”.
Erich Ferrari, an attorney specializing on trade sanctions law and expert of issues relating the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), agreed with Marshall’s opinion over the administration’s stance and cast doubts of a U.S. rapid decision on the new sanctions and predicted the move “will be facing problems”.
Ferrari pointed to a specific provision denying export licenses for U.S. origin parts related to civil aviation to Iran and targets the safety of civilian population, as a part of the move that might face problems, and said: “it’s definitely not an easy thing to reconcile.”
“On one hand the U.S. government wants to preclude parts that are going to be used for military purposes in Iran, but on the other hand there is the issue of not wanting the sanctions impede upon the safety of the Iranian civilian population,” Ferrari said.
“If it ultimately passed, then we would see a very different law,” Ferrari continued.
The two experts did not expect the approval of new set of sanctions before the yearend.
EU Foreign Policy Chief Catherine Ashton in October made it clear that there must be no repeat of the last round of talks with Iran in January which made no progress. Ashton leads the efforts to negotiate with Iran on behalf of the six world powers.
Marshall, the senior international economic policy advisor to the vice-president Al Gore, see less desire in the West over such talks saying “there were many who have come to feel that those negotiations and discussions have not yielded anything practical.”
“Diplomacy sometimes is good … but I think many people think what is needed here is results.”
Unlike Marshall, some still believe the path of diplomacy has not reached to end and the West should push for a diplomatic solution on the Islamic state’s nuclear ambition, rather than imposing tougher sanctions.
“I believe the way to get the result is through dialogue,” said Ferrari in the same show on Wednesday.Proposals for new sanctions against Iran may target the Central Bank of the world's fifth largest oil producer as well as more country’s officials including the supreme leader, the president and a group of lawmakers and members of the Revolutionary Guards in addition to those who had already been enlisted in the U.S. sanctions.

۱۳۹۰ آبان ۱۴, شنبه

رد ادعای ایران مبنی بر پایان نظام سرمایه داری توسط یک مقام سابق آمریکا

از: سیامک دهقانپور و بابک گرجی

بخش فارسی صدای آمریکا

(واشنگتن) – یک مقام سابق دولتی آمریکا، ادعای مقامات ایرانی مبنی بر این که جنبش تسخیر وال استریت منعکس کنندۀ بحرانی جدی است که به سقوط نظام سرمایه داری ایالات متحده منجر خواهد شد را رد کرد و گفت که سرمایه داری آمریکایی به آن اندازه مستحکم هست که بتواند خود را تعدیل کند.

آیت الله خامنه ای، رهبر جمهوری اسلامی ایران، چندی پیش گفته بود جنبش ضد وال استریت انعکاس بحران های جدی در آمریکاست و پیش بینی کرد غرب و نظام سرمایه داری اش در نهایت با گسترش این تحرکات سقوط خواهند کرد.

جنبش «وال استریت را اشغال کن»، از سپتامبر گذشته در شهر نیویورک و در اعتراض به قدرت بخش های سیاسی و مالی در آن کشور آغاز شد و نه تنها به شهر های دیگر آمریکا گسترش یافت، بلکه الهام بخش فعالان ضد شرکت های بزرگ مالی و اقتصادی در سایر کشورها شد.

رابرت رایش، وزیر اسبق کار آمریکا، که مهمان برنامۀ تحلیلی «افق» از بخش فارسی صدای آمریکا بود، به این نکته اذعان کرد که گاهی نظام سرمایه داری در ایالات متحده از تعادل خارج می شود اما در عین حال تاکید کرد که «این پایان سرمایه داری آمریکا نیست».

رایش همچنین بر قدرت انعظاف پذیری اقتصاد آمریکا تاکید کرد و گفت: «همانطور که در ۱۲۰ سال گذشته شاهد بودیم، ایالات متحده همیشه تعادل را برقرار کرده و هنوز چنین تمایلی را دارد».

آیت الله خامنه ای طی یک سخنرانی در کرمانشاه ادعا کرده بود که سرمایه داری غرب به بن بست رسیده و جهان در حال تغییری تاریخی است.

رایش که هم اکنون استاد دانشگاه برکلی است، طی سخنرانی در ماه گذشته در جمع معترضان در کالیفرنیا، آنها را تشویق کرد که اعتراضشان را به شکلی «غیر خشونت آمیز» ادامه داده تا واشنگتن اگر کمکی نمی تواند بکند، دست کم مجبور شود به آن توجه کند.

کارشناسان بر این باورند که رشد این حرکت اعتراضی ملهم از روش های بکار گرفته شده در قیام های مردمی موسوم به «بهار عرب» در خاورمیانه است. مقامات ایرانی جنبش تسخیر وال استریت را با آن قیام ها در جهان عرب مقایسه کرده و این اعتراضات را «بهار آمریکا» نامیده اند.

ایلان برمن، نایب رئیس شورای سیاست خارجی آمریکا، که دیگر مهمان برنامۀ افق بود، در واکنش به این موضوع گفت: «بطور حتم معترضان وال استریت، یا دست کم بعضی از آنها، گفته اند که از بهار عرب الهام گرفته اند ... ولی شباهت این دو حرکت در همین جا به پایان می رسد

وی در ادامه توضیح داد که جنبش تسخیر وال استریت درصدد ساقط کردن حکومت نیست و تاکید کرد: «یقینأ آنها تغییرات بنیادی که معترضان در خاورمیانه می خواهند را دنبال نمی کنند

جنبش وال استریت، بخشی از یک حرکت سازماندهی شدۀ کوچکی است که نسبت به عملکرد شبکه های مالی، نابرابری اقتصادی و نیز نرخ بالای بیکاری در آمریکا معترض است.

باراک اوباما، رییس جمهوری ایالات متحده آمریکا، طی سخنانی در اواسط ماه اکتبر در مراسم یادبود مارتین لوترکینگ در واشنگتن، ضمن تائید تلویحی اعتراضات گفت: «اگر او امروز زنده بود، به ما یادآوری می کرد که کارگران بیکارشده این حق را دارند که زیاده روی های وال استریت را زیر سوال ببرند، بدون اینکه تمام افرادی که در آنجا کار می کنند را انسان هایی نادرست بدانند

Former secretary rejects Iran claims over the end of U.S. capitalism

By Siamak Dehghanpour and Babak Gorji

Voice of America, Persian News Network

(Washington) – A former U.S. secretary rejected claims by Iranian officials that Occupy Wall Street protests reflect a serious crisis that will reach to an end of the capitalism in the Unites States, saying the American capitalism is strong enough to rebalance itself.

Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, earlier in October, termed the anti-Wall Street protests a “reflection of serious crises in the U.S.” and predicted: "it will eventually grow so that it will bring down the capitalist system and the West."

The Occupy Wall Street movement started in New York City in September protests at the power of the financial and political sectors. It was not only spreading to other parts of the U.S. but also inspired anti-corporate activists to camp out in other countries.

“This is not the end of the U.S. capitalism,” said the former Labor secretary Robert Reich in an interview with Horizon, a Voice of America’s Persian language television program, admitting the U.S. capitalism sometimes gets out of balance.

Stressing on resilience of American economy, Reich noted “the United States does and has tendency, as we have seen it over the last 120 years, to rebalance itself.”

Khamenei, in a speech in the western Iranian city of Kermanshah, claimed the West’s capitalism has reached a dead-end and said "the world is at a historical turn."

Earlier in October, the UC Berkeley professor in an address to the Occupy SF encampment at Justin Herman Plaza encouraged the protestors to "make so much of a ruckus - nonviolently - that Washington can't help but pay attention."

Experts attribute the protests' growth to tactics learned from the popular uprisings in the Middle East called “Arab Spring” that have toppled autocratic regimes in the Arab world. Iranian top officials cheerfully compare the anti-Wall Street movement to those protests naming it “America Spring”.

“Certainly the Occupy Wall Street protestors, at least some, have said that this has been inspired by Arab spring … but that’s where the similarity ends,” Ilan Berman, the Vice President of the American Foreign Policy Council, said.

“This isn’t a movement that is going to bring down the government … it is certainly not looking for the type of dramatically change that the protestors in the Middles East are seeking,” Berman said.

The Occupy Wall Street protests are part of a loosely organized movement protesting corporate greed, economic inequality and high unemployment.

Addressing in Washington at the dedication of the monument to slain American civil rights leader on October 16, President Barack Obama acknowledged the movement by invoking the name of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.